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Nigeria History

Practically all the indigenous races of Africa are represented in Nigeria, hence the great diversity of her people and culture. It was in Nigeria that the Bantu and SemiBantu, migrating from southern and central Africa, intermingled with the Sudanese. Later, other groups such as Shuwa-Arabs, the Tuaregs, and the Fulanis, who are concentrated in the far north, entered northern Nigeria in migratory waves across the Sahara Desert. The first occupants of Nigeria settled in the forest belt and in the Niger Delta region.Today there are estimated to be more than 250 ethnic groups in Nigeria. While no single group enjoys an absolute numeric majority, four major groups constitute 60% of the population: Hausa-Fulani in the north, Yoruba in the west, and Igbo in the east. Other groups include: Kanuri, Binis, Ibibio, Ijaw, Itsekiri, Efik, Nupe, Tiv, and Jukun.

Kanem-Borno: There is no clear evidence to link the people of the Jos Plateau with the Nok culture, or the Eze Nri of today with Igbo Ukwu. The history of Borno can be traced back to the 9th Century when Arabic writers in north Africa discovered the kingdom of Kanem east of Lake Chad. Boosted by trade with the Nile region and Trans-Saharan routes, the empire prospered. In the years that followed, complex political and social systems were developed, particularly after the Bulala invasion in the 14th Century. Later the empire moved from Kanem to Borno, hence the name. The empire lasted for 1,000 years (until the 19th Century) despite challenges from the Hausa-Fulani in the west and Jukun from the south.